Those Darn Job Descriptions

Job DescIn my last entry “What do you really want me to do!?” the focus was on how a job description is used to inform the employee about the manager or organization’s expectations. After reading that post, a colleague of my loverly wife, I will call him Mr. J. Hunter, shared a recent experience where the job description was being used for recruitment and selection purposes. Same tool, different application.

So… have you ever read a job description in a job posting and thought “What is this job – really!?” Mr. J. Hunter works in the IT industry and he’s a pretty sharp guy with loads of experience working in the upper levels of the field. His experience in this situation raised some potential things to consider in writing job descriptions for a job offering.

If you are only going to offer the first level in a salary range, why dangle the upper end of range? I had the same experience with a local University. The salary range was (let’s say) $65-$70K and seemed like a bargaining point until we all sat down. The HR folks said there were Union rules and the likes that would necessitate starting at the bottom and in 5 years I could be at the top range. That was some bad juju for both Mr. J. Hunter and I.

Make sure the the tasks you are describing are aligned with the level of the job. In Mr. J. Hunter’s case, the job was a “first level support technician.” However! The employer wanted this first level techie to also:

  • Ensure data integrity through backups for client data (daily and weekly) and monthly verification of the backup media integrity; 
  • Maintain daily virus detection and inoculation procedures on the network; and
  • Provide computer consulting services to clients on a project or enquire basis according to IT standards and procedures.

Mr. J. Hunter pointed out some serious questions he had about the above wording, specifically the bold words, which made me think back on some job descriptions I have read (or maybe wrote – oh my goodness).

Backup media integrity relates to Business continuity/Disaster recovery planning which is way beyond 1st level support. Client or Desktop Support is related to personal computers while network support has to do with servers, switches, routers etc and belongs in a different job description all together.

The last point on consulting services, projects and standards is very vague and the questions raised by the previous two points compound the uncertainty. Would the consulting services and projects be related to PCs or networks? What are the size and scope chickenof the projects? Finally, the standards and procedures could be better explained. Are they the standards of the organization? Provincial? National? International?

Now – this last point, “other duties as required,” was also in the description and I am definitely guilty of using this. It seems to be a pretty common add on at the end of many job descriptions.  Doug Savage calls it “the slavery clause,” Mr. J. Hunter called it “the big catch all for doing other people’s jobs” while on further reflection, it appears to me as an easy way to cover one’s backside in case you forget to include a task.

In Mentors, Managers and Metrics we looked at the need for alignment between organizational goals, metrics and the expectations of your workforce – which was the spark that started this whole train of thought. Mr. J. Hunter’s situation shows us another place where alignment is key! The tasks in the job description must be aligned to the correct job level in order to ensure that the correct pay and benefits are being offered for the work being done. This misalignment is what ultimately convinced Mr. J. Hunter not to proceed further with the application. I don’t blame him!

Get to know the job intimately that you’re applying for. Don’t just read the job description – study it and picture yourself performing every task required of you. When you interview, framing your responses so that you reveal your significant knowledge about the job gives you a massive advantage
~Travis Bradberry

Clearly, Mr. J. Hunter was applying the advice of Travis Bradberry above and really thought about the job he was applying for. Another expert whose wisdom I cherish is Dr. Allison Rossett who shared an article today that relates to this topic… “The gig economy: Distraction or Disruption.” The authors ask “How can a business manage talent effectively when many, or even most, of its people are not actually its employees? Networks of people who work without any formal employment agreement—as well as the growing use of machines as talent—are reshaping the talent management equation.”

That has me wondering how relevant job descriptions will be at all in another ten years. Food for thought! Speaking of food… it’s supper time! Later ‘gater!

 

 

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Expectations of the Workforce…

Expectations of the Workforce or “What do you really want me to do!?”

Have you ever started a new job or moved into a new position and thought “I don’t have a clue what I am supposed to be doing!?” How about the frazzled manager who gets the new hire and says “Here’s your desk… don’t worry – you’ll pick it up as you go.”

More than once in my career I have been transferred into a position where my “job Capture
description” consisted of a file folder full of printed e-mails, post-it notes and hand scratches on the back of a beer coaster. Frustrating when there are Human Resource (HR) policies and procedures that clearly outline requirements for job descriptions and performance reviews leading up to the annual performance assessment.

After becoming exposed to Performance Improvement and understanding the importance of the job description for setting expectations and the performance reviews as a feedback loop – in each successive position where I wasn’t provided a job description – I wrote my own – and presented it to my supervisor and asked “Is that what you want me to do?” It worked as a way to at least start a dialogue about expectations.

Feedback is the breakfast of champions.
~Ken Blanchard

In my most recent position where I had to manage others, I had one fella who had been bounced from job to job in the unit and didn’t seem to be getting a fair shake. When I took up the job, we sat down and reviewed my first attempt at his job description and made some tweaks, added some of his professional aspirations and away we went. We sat down twice in the year reviewing his progress, as well as at other intervals when more immediate feedback was needed. At the end of the year, I was able to base his performance assessment on all this and substantiate his higher than average rating amongst his peers. Easy when you use the system as it was designed.

A lot of people seemed to have “written off” this young man as needing too much care and supervision. I wondered – as we often do in our field – is it the performer or the work environment (which is the responsibility of management)?

Back in 2012, Guy Wallace (another one of my mentors and friends) and I wrote an article for eLearn Magazine that attempted to answer the question:

Where did the statement “80% of performance gaps are caused by other than Knowledge/skill deficits” come from?

To make a long story short, there was a consensus amongst the research and experts in the field that around 75-80 percent of the factors that influence performance are environmentally rather than individually based.

Now there are many (many many) environmental factors that can negatively impact performance. Some we can influence, some we can’t. In this case, simply setting clear expectations and providing regular feedback to show him how he was progressing created a real turn around.

One of the foundational models in Performance Improvement is Tom Gilbert’s Behaviour Engineering Model. Gilbert helps us see performance from both environmental and individual perspectives. A good topic to delve into next…

 

Mentors, Managers and Metrics

I recently learned that one of my mentors and good friend, Dr. Roger Chevalier, is going to become the latest Honourary Life Member of the International Society for Performance

roger and brett (2)
Roger and I at the 2012 ISPI Conference in Toronto

Improvement or ISPI. That has had me thinking about mentors, managers and metrics.

I met Roger through the Armed Forces Chapter of ISPI where he took me under his wing and I ended up following him into a leadership role in the Chapter. There is no better way of learning than by doing! Roger was a student of Ken Blanshard, Paul Hersey and Marshall Goldsmith – all leadership and management gurus in their own rights, so I feel very fortunate that we crossed paths and have remained in touch over the years.So that is the mentor in this story. My warmest congratulations to a tireless promoter of our craft!

The vast majority of books that I have read regarding performance improvement are very “text-booky” (my term) and/or aimed at consultants in the field. Roger has long believed that ISPI needs to focus more attention on managers – the folks on the front lines who have to make performance happen. This is a view I share! Roger published a book called A Manager’s Guide to Improving Workplace Performance in 2007 to help that management group understand how to apply performance improvement methods in their workplace. In 200 pages – he lays out a pretty straightforward prescription for helping work teams succeed. Now this is NOT an ad for Roger’s book, but I DO strongly recommend it for anyone in a managerial position. Don’t tell him – but I am hoping that his book sales will skyrocket and he will fly me out to Cali and take me for a ride in his ’64 Corvette convertible!

So where do metrics fit in? I recently did a project for a government organization [who shall remain nameless but you know who you are]. The aim of the project was to examine the training system and make recommendations on how it could be improved.

To give you some context, performance improvement is pretty straight forward. It kinda goes like this:

  • There is a problem (or someone thinks there is a problem)
  • You do some analysis… the organization, the environment it exists within etc to help understand the context
  • You ask the boss “If your problem was fixed, what would the world look like?” This is referred to as “The Desired Performance Statement.” Some folks call it the “To-Be” state
  • Then you ask “What is actually happening right now?” This is the “As-Is” state or the “Current Performance Statement”
  • Comparing the As-Is to the To-Be is called the “Gap Analysis”
  • Then you look for the reasons why you are stuck in the As-Is when you really want to get to To-Be. This is called “Cause Analysis”
  • Once you know the cause(s) [There is normally more than one] you can look at all the potential ways to reduce or remove those causes… the “interventions”
  • Then you select the intervention(s) that will give you the biggest bang for the buck, figure out how to best implement them and do it!
  • All throughout this process you should be evaluating what you have done so far and consider change management requirements

Click HERE to see ISPI’s Performance Improvement Model

Easy peasy right? What if there aren’t any metrics or the wrong things are being measured? Roger’s book has a great quote at the start of Chapter 6 “Defining the Performance Gap” that has always stuck with me (and been repeated in different forms by many people.)

“I can’t improve it if I can’t measure it”
~William Thompson, Lord Kelvin

So – back to that project I was doing. There are metrics, but they are all about the output of the training system ~ graduates. That’s a good metric but it doesn’t tell the whole story! There is nothing in place to measure the work going on within the system itself! For example… how long does it take to define the job, write the performance standards, design and develop the training? No idea. If they did the training this way or that way – what is the cost difference? What are the resource implications? There is some data, but not enough to see how the system is working. Now in fairness, they are developing those metrics and hopefully someday soon they will have that figured out.

Metrics then, are tied to organizational goals and the expectations of your workforce. If you are missing any of these three factors, chances are that your organization is underperforming.

That’s it! Stay tuned for next time… expectations of the workforce is in the batter’s box!